Ebonite

Also known as hard rubber and vulcanite. A hard rubber produced by vulcanizing rubber for prolonged periods until it contains about 30%-40% sulfur. It used to be frequently used for writing instruments since the end of XIX century until 30ties of XX century. Later replaced by various plastics and resins. Renaissance of ebonite fountain pens is seen in recent 20 (?) years. Ebonite is considered the best material for pens intended to be lacquered with urushi. History of ebonite and urushi on fountain pens is very interconnected – initially, pens were covered with urushi to protect ebonite from oxidation.

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